How to Choose Insulation

If you live in a home that’s more than a few years old, it’s probably worth your time to figure out if it’s properly insulated. With the right insulation, you can create a more comfortable, consistent indoor climate and significantly improve your home’s energy efficiency.

How to Select Insulation

  1. Determine where you need to add insulation. The most effective places to add it to older homes are usually attics, basements and crawl spaces.
  2. Determine how much additional insulation R-value you need.
  3. Determine the type of insulation you need.
  4. Calculate the quantity of insulation you should buy.
  5. Choose whether you want to undergo a DIY insulation project or get insulation professionally installed.

What is Insulation R-Value?

R-value measures how well certain building insulation materials, such as foam insulation, can resist heat. The higher the R-value, the greater the performance of the insulation. Keep in mind that if insulation is compressed, the R-value will decrease.

Which R-Value is Right For Your Home?

Ensuring your insulated spaces have the correct R-Value depends on a few factors, including your province, city and zone. Different areas of your home also require different R-Values in order to make sure your floors, ceilings and walls are insulated correctly and efficiently.

Our guides below will tell you exactly which R-Value you’ll need in those spaces to keep your home cool in the summer, and warm in the winter.

British Columbia

Notes:

  1. Thermal resistance values within these tables reflect requirements in Table 9.36.2.6.A. and Table 9.36.2.8.A. of the National Building Code.

  2. Suggested best practice to validate thermal resistance value with local building department before commencement of construction.

  3. Ensure inboard/outboard ratios have been satisfied as per 9.25.5.2. of the National Building Code when utilizing low permeance exterior sheathings.

  4. Effective thermal resistance values within the tables have assumed no value for thermal resistance of air space behind a rain screen. Consult local building department to determine if there are provisions that assign R-value for these air spaces. In such cases where R-value is assigned this may decrease the R-value requirement for batt insulation.

  5. Foam plastic insulation on the interior of the building envelope must adhere to the requirements of protection of foamed plastics as per 9.10.17.10 of the National Building Code of Canada.
British Columbia - Zone 4
British Columbia - Zone 4
  Good Better Best
Ceiling Below Attics

R-40
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-50
Batt or Blown
Insulation
R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation
Cathedral Ceilings & Flat Roofs
R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®
Floors Over Unheated Spaces R-31
Batt Insulation
R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®
R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®
Walls Above Grade
R-19
Batt Insulation
R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®
R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®
Foundation Walls
R-12/14
Batt Insulation
R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®
R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®
British Columbia - Zone 5
British Columbia - Zone 5
  Good Better Best
Ceiling Below Attics

R-40
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-50
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Cathedral Ceilings & Flat Roofs

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Floors Over Unheated Spaces

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Foundation Walls

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

British Columbia - Zone 6
British Columbia - Zone 6
  Good Better Best
Ceiling Below Attics

R-50
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-50
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Cathedral Ceilings & Flat Roofs

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Floors Over Unheated Spaces

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Foundation Walls

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

British Columbia - Zone 7A
British Columbia - Zone 7A
  Good Better Best
Ceiling Below Attics

R-50
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Cathedral Ceilings & Flat Roofs

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-15
CodeBord®

Floors Over Unheated Spaces

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-15
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Foundation Walls

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Alberta

Notes:

  1. Suggested best practice to validate thermal resistance value with local building department before commencement of construction.

  2. Ensure inboard/outboard ratios have been satisfied as per 9.25.5.2. of the National Building Code when utilizing low permeance exterior sheathings.

  3. Foam plastic insulation on the interior of the building envelope must adhere to the requirements of protection of foamed plastics as per 9.10.17.10 of the National Building Code of Canada.

  4. Alberta will be fully under 9.36 including climatic zoning separation, by May 1st, 2016.
  Good Better Best
Ceiling Below Attics

R-31
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-50
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Cathedral Ceilings & Flat Roofs

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Floors Over Unheated Spaces

R-20
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade

R-12/14
Batt Insulation

R-19/22
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-15
CodeBord®

Foundation/Basement Walls

R-8
Batt Insulation

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Saskatchewan

Notes:

  1. Suggested best practice to validate thermal resistance value with local building department before commencement of construction.

  2. Ensure inboard/outboard ratios have been satisfied as per 9.25.5.2. of the National Building Code when utilizing low permeance exterior sheathings.

  3. Foam plastic insulation on the interior of the building envelope must adhere to the requirements of protection of foamed plastics as per 9.10.17.10 of the National Building Code of Canada.
Saskatchewan - Zone 7A/7B
Saskatchewan - Zone 7A/7B
  Good Better Best
Ceiling Below Attics

R-50
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Cathedral Ceilings & Flat Roofs

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Floors Over Unheated Spaces

R-28
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade

R-19
Batt Insulation

R-19/22
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-15
CodeBord®

Foundation/Basement Walls

R-14 or R-12
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Manitoba

Notes:

  1. Thermal resistance values within this table reflects the changes made by Manitoba’s building code amendment “The Buildings and Mobile Homes Act (C.C.S.M. c. B93)” to table 9.36.2.6B of the National Building Code.

  2. Suggested best practice to validate thermal resistance value with local building department before commencement of construction.

  3. Foam plastic insulation on the interior of the building envelope must adhere to the requirements of protection of foamed plastics as per 9.10.17.10 of the National Building Code of Canada.

  4. Ensure inboard/outboard ratios have been satisfied as per 9.25.5.2. of the National Building Code when utilizing low permeance exterior sheathings.

  5. Manitoba is currently adopting Section 9.36 of the National Building Code. Please check with your building official to ensure effective compliance.
Manitoba - Zone 7A/7B
Manitoba - Zone 7A/7B
  Good Better Best
Ceiling Below Attics

R-50
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Cathedral Ceilings & Flat Roofs

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Floors Over Unheated Spaces

R-28
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade

R-19
Batt Insulation

R-19/22
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-15
CodeBord®

Foundation/Basement Walls

R-14 or R-12
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Ontario

Notes:

  1. Thermal resistance values within this table meets or exceeds minimum requirements within Supplementary Standard SB-12 of the 2017 Ontario Building Code when utilizing space-heating equipment with AFUE greater than or equal to 92%.

  2. Suggested best practice to validate thermal resistance value with local building department before commencement of construction to ensure conformance.

  3. Ensure inboard/outboard ratios have been satisfied as per 9.25.5.2. of the 2017 Ontario Building Code when installing low permeance exterior sheathing.

  4. Combustible foam plastic insulation on the interior of the building envelope must adhere to the requirements as per 9.10.17.10 of the 2017 Ontario Building Code.
Ontario - Zone 1
Ontario - Zone 1
  Good Better Best
Ceiling With Attics Space

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-70
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-80
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Ceiling Without Attic Space

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-35
Batt Insulation

R-35
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

Exposed Floors

R-35
Batt Insulation

R-35
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-35
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade

R-22 or R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-5/7.5
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Basement Walls

R-15 or R-20
Batt Insulation
+
Blanket Wrap

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Ontario - Zone 2
Ontario - Zone 2
  Good Better Best
Ceiling With Attics Space

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-70
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-80
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Ceiling Without Attic Space

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-35
Batt Insulation

R-35
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

Exposed Floors

R-35
Batt Insulation

R-35
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-35
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-10/15
CodeBord®

Basement Walls

R-20
Batt Insulation
+
Blanket Wrap

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-10/15
CodeBord®

Quebec

Notes:

  1. Recommended thermal resistance requirements in compliance to Part 11 of the Quebec Building Code.

  2. Suggested best practice to validate thermal resistance value with local building department before commencement of construction.

  3. Ensure inboard/outboard ratios have been satisfied as per 9.25.1.2. of the Quebec Building Code when installing low permeance exterior sheathing.

  4. plastic insulation on the interior of the building envelope must adhere to the requirements of protection of foamed plastics as per 9.10.17.10 of the Quebec Building Code.
Quebec - Zone 1
Quebec - Zone 1
  Good Better Best
Ceiling With Attics Space

R-41
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-50
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Ceiling Without Attic Space

R-41
Batt Insulation

R-40
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-40
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Exposed Floors

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-4
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Basement Walls

R-12
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®
or 3" INSULPINK®
System

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Under Slab

R-5
CodeBord®
Under Entire Floor
Surface

R-7.5
CodeBord®
Under Entire Floor
Surface

R-10
CodeBord®
Under Entire Floor
Surface

Quebec - Zone 2
Quebec - Zone 2
  Good Better Best
Ceiling With Attics Space

R-51
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Ceiling Without Attic Space

R-51
Batt Insulation

R-40
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-40
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Exposed Floors

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Basement Walls

R-12
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®
or 3" INSULPINK®
System

R-14
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Under Slab

R-5
CodeBord®
Under Entire Floor
Surface

R-7.5
CodeBord®
Under Entire Floor
Surface

R-10
CodeBord®
Under Entire Floor
Surface

Atlantic Canada

Notes:

  1. Thermal resistance values within these tables reflect requirements in Table 9.36.2.6.A. and Table 9.36.2.8.A. of the National Building Code.

  2. Suggested best practice to validate thermal resistance value with local Building Official before commencement of construction.

  3. Ensure inboard/outboard ratios have been satisfied as per 9.25.5.2. of the National Building Code when utilizing low permeance exterior sheathings.

  4. To satisfy thermal resistance requirements for above grade walls the following batt insulation only options can be utilized: WITH HRV R22 and stud spacing at 24” on-centre or R24 and stud spacing at 16”on-centre / WITHOUT HRV R24 and stud spacing at 24” on-centre.

  5. Effective thermal resistance values within the tables have assumed no value for thermal resistance of air space behind a rain screen. Consult local building official to determine if there are provisions that assign R-value for these air spaces. In such cases where R-value is assigned this may decrease the R-value requirement for batt insulation.
Atlantic Canada - Zone 5
Atlantic Canada - Zone 5
  Good Better Best
Ceiling Below Attics

R-50
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Cathedral Ceilings & Floors Over Unheated Spaces

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade
R-22 or R-244
Batt Insulation

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-5/7.5
CodeBord®

R-22 or R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

Foundation Walls

R-22
Batt Insulation

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-5/7.5
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

Atlantic Canada - Zone 6
Atlantic Canada - Zone 6
  Good Better Best
Ceiling Below Attics

R-50
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Cathedral Ceilings & Floors Over Unheated Spaces

R-31
Batt Insulation

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade
R-22 or R-244
Batt Insulation

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-5/7.5
CodeBord®

R-22 or R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

Foundation Walls

R-22
Batt Insulation

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-5/7.5
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

Atlantic Canada - Zone 7A
Atlantic Canada - Zone 7A
  Good Better Best
Ceiling Below Attics

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

R-60
Batt or Blown
Insulation

Cathedral Ceilings & Floors Over Unheated Spaces

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-31
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Walls Above Grade
R-22 or R-244
Batt Insulation

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-5/7.5
CodeBord®

R-22 or R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5/10
CodeBord®

Foundation Walls

R-19
Batt Insulation
+
R-5
CodeBord®

R-22
Batt Insulation
+
R-7.5
CodeBord®

R-24
Batt Insulation
+
R-10
CodeBord®

Insulation Types and Forms

The most common types of insulation are fibreglass, cellulose and foam. These types of insulation are available in a number of different forms depending on the location and R-value you intend to add.

Blown-in/Loose Fill

Blown-in/Loose Fill
Blown-in or loose fill insulation is usually made of fibreglass or cellulose (recycled paper fibre). It’s blown or sprayed into place with a machine and is ideal for use in hard-to-reach areas, such as attics. It can also be used to fill wall cavities or to top up existing insulation.

If installing blown-in insulation yourself, you can rent a blowing machine from a Home Depot Tool Rental Centre.

Batts

Batts
Batts are pre-cut sections of fibreglass or rock wool insulation that are designed for easy handling and use between framing, such as studs and joists. They can be used in floors, walls, attics and ceilings.

Foam Board

Foam Board
Foam board insulation, or rigid panels of insulation, can be used to insulate almost any part of your home, from the roof to the foundation. Polystyrene and polyurethane are the most common materials used in making foam board. Foam board insulation sheathing reduces heat conduction through structural elements like wood and steel studs.

Spray Foam

Spray Foam
Latex or polyurethane spray foam insulation can be used to fill small gaps and cracks and is ideal for sealing around doors, windows and vents. It sets quickly, and can be trimmed, painted or stained. Special equipment may be needed to apply foam to larger areas.

Vapour Barriers

Vapour Barriers
Vapour barriers help control the amount of moisture that passes through insulation and are commonly used when framing the exterior walls of a house. If moisture from either direction is allowed to build up within the stud or cavity walls, the heat-conducting moisture will cause the insulation to lose its R-value and allow mould and rot to set in over time.

Radiant Barriers

Radiant Barriers
Radiant barriers deflect radiant heat, which can pass through other types of insulation to further increase your home’s energy efficiency.

Calculating the Costs of Insulation

  1. 1 Determine if Your Home Is Already Insulated

    If you have insulation, find out the type and compare it to industry standards for R-value. Remember: The higher the R-value, the more effective the insulation.

  2. 2 Calculate Any Additional Insulation Needs

    If, for example, industry standard is R-50 and your depth is less than this, subtract the R-value depth you have from 50 to determine the amount needed to top up.

  3. 3 Measure the Area Needing Insulation

    Measure the length of space needing insulation. Batts of insulation generally come in 16- or 24-inch widths to fit the spaces between wall and attic framing.

  4. 4 Determine the Type of Insulation to Use

    Decide what type of insulation you want to use. Manufacturers cut batts into 4-foot lengths. Once you determine which product to use, divide your total from Step 3 by the square footage per bag. Find the cost for insulation and multiply one unit by the total you need to complete the job.

Other Areas to Insulate

Window Insulation Another way to control heat loss is by improving the quality of your windows. Low emissivity (or Low-E) windows do not allow as much heat to pass through, keeping your house cooler when it’s hot and warmer when it’s cold. Shrink film and weatherstripping are low-cost alternatives.
Hot Water Heater Insulation Insulate water heaters to prevent costly energy loss. Look for insulating pre-cut jackets or blankets with an insulating value of at least R-8. Adding insulation to your water heater can reduce standby heat losses and save you water heating costs.
Hot Water Pipe Insulation Wrap pipes with tubular insulation to prevent freezing and help keep water hot. Use quality pipe insulation wrap, or neatly tape strips of fibreglass insulation around the pipes. Insulating your hot water pipes reduces heat loss and can raise water temperature, allowing you to use a lower temperature setting.
Vent Duct Insulation Insulated heating and air conditioning ducts operate more efficiently and vibrate less, reducing noise. Properly sealing air leaks using metal or sealant tape and insulating air ducts located in unconditioned spaces such as attics, crawl spaces, garages, or unfinished basements can also help improve your home’s energy efficiency. 

DIY Installation Tips and Tools

DIY Installation Tips and Tools

Before You Insulate

First, make sure that your house is properly ventilated. Adequate ventilation is necessary to prevent too much heat and condensation from building up, as well as to provide fresh air. Next, plug leaks to prevent air from getting in and out in areas around windows and doors. Always fix leaks before installing insulation, as they may be difficult to find after the job is finished.

Tools

The basic tools needed for an insulation project are: a tape measure, utility knife, straight edge, lightweight stapler, or hammer tacker to secure insulation in place, and a putty knife. Additional materials may include a drywall compound and expanding foam sealer.

It’s also a great idea to bring a portable light, especially when working in attics and crawl spaces, plywood to stand on, a rake for insulation adjustment, and insulation supports. All these tools and materials will come in handy during your project.

Safety Tips:

Working with insulation can cause itching and skin irritation, so make sure you take proper safety precautions:

  • Wear long sleeves and pants, work gloves, safety glasses, and a dust mask or respirator to avoid irritating your skin or breathing in harmful substances.
  • Vacuum your clothing immediately after to help reduce the chances of skin irritation.

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